Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Kubernetes Setup

This post is a walkthrough for getting Kubernetes environment up and running. (Truly speaking, it is more of a self note to get Kubernetes environment running.) We will use Vagrant as Kubernetes provider to configure a Kubernetes cluster of VirtualBox VMs.

Prerequisities
Get following componentes installed:

  • Kubernetes
  • Virtualbox
  • Vagrant
  • Docker

Step 1: Configure and start Kubernetes

Note: One change I had to make with Kubernetes 1.3.3 running on Mac using Vagrant as Kubernetes provider is to instruct Vagrant to not create ssh keys. I modified the Vagrantfile in kubernetes install by adding

config.ssh.insert_key = false

To start a Kubernetes cluster

export KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=vagrant 
export NUM_NODES=2 
cluster/kube-up.sh 

This will create three VirtualBox images namely master, node-1 and node-2. At the end of the process you will see messages on console like this.

Kubernetes cluster is running.
The master is running at:
  https://10.245.1.2 
Administer and visualize its resources using Cockpit:
  https://10.245.1.2:9090 
For more information on Cockpit, visit http://cockpit-project.org 
The user name and password to use is located in /Users/kartik/.kube/config 

... calling validate-cluster 
Found 2 node(s).
NAME                STATUS    AGE 
kubernetes-node-1   Ready     4m 
kubernetes-node-2   Ready     44s 
Validate output:
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE              ERROR 
controller-manager   Healthy   ok                   
scheduler            Healthy   ok                   
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health": "true"}   
etcd-1               Healthy   {"health": "true"}   
Cluster validation succeeded 
Done, listing cluster services:

Kubernetes master is running at https://10.245.1.2 
Heapster is running at https://10.245.1.2/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/heapster 
KubeDNS is running at https://10.245.1.2/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kube-dns 
kubernetes-dashboard is running at https://10.245.1.2/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kubernetes-dashboard 
Grafana is running at https://10.245.1.2/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-grafana 
InfluxDB is running at https://10.245.1.2/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-influxdb 

To further debug and diagnose cluster problems, use 'kubectl cluster-info dump'.

Step 2: Run Docker image

Let’s start a simple Docker image. I will use the Spring Boot application Docker image that we create in the last blog entry - Setting up development environment with Docker, Maven and IntelliJ

To configure the authentication for Docker private repository

docker login [server]

This will create credentials under your $HOME/.docker/config.json

To start docker image that is available locally on Docker

kubectl run options --image=kartikshah/options-analyzer --replicas=2 --port=8080 
deployment "options" created 

It will take a minute or so for the pods to get to Running status. If you catch them in act of starting up you will see ContrainerCreating Status.

$ kubectl get pods 
NAME                       READY     STATUS              RESTARTS   AGE 
options-2554117421-5dwws   0/1       ContainerCreating   0          11s 
options-2554117421-7ec17   0/1       ContainerCreating   0          11s 

$ kubectl get pods 
NAME                       READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE 
options-2554117421-5dwws   1/1       Running   0          4m 
options-2554117421-7ec17   1/1       Running   0          4m 

You can validate docker process is running by

$ vagrant ssh node-1 -c 'sudo docker ps'
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                                                                  COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES 
1b56f4a3222a        kartikshah/options-analyzer                                            "java -Djava.security"   3 minutes ago       Up 3 minutes                            k8s_options.e44b7492_options-2554117421-5dwws_default_b7a648ff-5a58-11e6-9527-08002769954a_0da80b48 


Step 3: Find IP address of the node

Describe all to find the IP address of the node.

$ kube describe all 
…
Name:        options-2554117421-7ec17 
Namespace:    default 
Node:        kubernetes-node-2/10.245.1.4 
Start Time:    Thu, 04 Aug 2016 10:32:56 -0500 
Labels:        pod-template-hash=2554117421 
        run=options 
Status:        Running 
IP:        10.246.21.3 
…

The IP address listed agains “IP” is the IP address this node is known inside the cluster. You can run a simple curl command from inside the node

$ vagrant ssh node-1 -c 'curl http://10.246.21.3:8080/'
Hello Options Trader, how are you? Connection to 127.0.0.1 closed.


Step 4: Expose Service Loadbalancer

Now let’s expose the pods running on both nodes using a LoadBalancer. Kubernetes load balancer are deployed as Replication Controller (or newer Replication Set). There are three types of Load Balancer options:
1. ClusterIP - Exposes an IP only available from within Kubernetes Cluster
2. NodePort - Exposes special port on a special node IP, but load balances across nodes.
3. LoadBalancer - Only provided by cloud providers e.g. Google, AWS, OpenShift

There is active development going on providing the LoadBalancer option on bare metal Kubernetes deployment. You can read more about it here at service-loadbalancer

We will use NodePort type of replication set to expose as service to outside world.

$ kubectl expose rs options-2554117421 --port=8080 --target-port=8080 --name=option-service --type=NodePort 
service "option-service" exposed 

Describe the service to get node ip and port that is exposed to host machine.

$ kubectl describe service
… 
Name:            option-service 
Namespace:        default 
Labels:            pod-template-hash=2554117421 
            run=options 
Selector:        pod-template-hash=2554117421,run=options 
Type:            NodePort 
IP:            10.247.237.53 
Port:                8080/TCP 
NodePort:            30728/TCP 
Endpoints:        10.246.21.3:8080,10.246.33.5:8080 
Session Affinity:    None 
...

Now you can access the service from you host machine. In my case from the Mac which is running the VirtualBox VMs.

$ curl http://10.245.1.4:30728/
Hello Options Trader, how are you?

There you have it - a Kubernetes cluster running a Docker image across multiple VMs (nodes) with NodePort loadbalancing.

Step 5: Console
This step is optional. If you want to explore the Kubernetes dashboard UI, you have to setup a private certificate. One of the ways Kubernetes dashboard UI authenticates is via identity cert. You can create this identity cert as follows:

#Copy the certs from master node
vagrant ssh master-c 'sudo cp /srv/kubernetes/kubecfg.* /vagrant/ && sudo cp /srv/kubernetes/ca.crt /vagrant/'
#Move them to separate folder
mv kubecfg.* ../certs/ && mv ca.crt ../certs/
#Create private cert using open ssl
openssl pkcs12 -export -clcerts -inkey ../certs/kubecfg.key -in ../certs/kubecfg.crt -out kubecfg.p12 -name "ks-kubecfg”
#For Mac only; open the private cert to install it in Keychain Access
open kubecfg.12

Now you can visit the dashboard by visiting the URL provided at the startup message.
https://10.245.1.2/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kubernetes-dashboard

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